The modernization of the manufacturing process of
traditional dairy products is long overdue. But, there is no need to
reinvent the wheel because some of the food processing methods available in the west can
be usefully adapted to mass produce traditional products. Some process
modifications may, however, become necessary.
Pioneers in the field
In recent years, process innovations have been
initiated at the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) and the National Dairy Research
Institute (NDRI) for the assembly-line production of burfi,
dahi, kheer, shrikhand, gulabjamun, rasagollas, mishti doi and the like, by
adapting the Western tools and technology. The use of western products like concentrated
and dried milk powder for making chhana and khoa
needs to be adopted in modern dairy plants, as also at the halwai level.
- An outstanding example of Western technology adaptation is
the manufacture of shrikhand on a large scale, using
basket centrifuges, quarg separators and planetory mixers, used by bakeries. Today, the
volume of shrikhand manufactured by the organized sector exceeds that of processed
cheese sold in India.
- The most modern plant associated with the manufacture of traditional
dairy products is the Baroda District Cooperative Milk Producers
Union Ltd. (Sugam Dairy) at Vadodara in Gujarat. It markets its products through a
large network of 150 retail outlets in the city. The Sugam Dairy uses the traditional
grocery/general stores that have a refrigerators to market its products. The product range
includes shrikhand, gulabjamuns, pedas and lassi,
apart from flavored milks. The dairy has the highest turnover of a
single unit, marketing traditional dairy products.
- The Mother Dairy in Calcutta markets mishti doi and dahi
in a similar fashion.
- Dairies in Punjab and Haryana market paneer and kalakand
(also, lately, milk cake).
- Cooperative dairies in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka also sell makkhan(butter), khoa, peda(a
form of sweetmeat) and kulfi.
- Warana and Mahanand dairies in Maharashtra
are also marketing shrikhand through their sales outlets.
Potential for more
- The manufacture of khoa, using roller dryers and
other scraped surface heat exchangers, is instance of the use of the Western
- UF/RO technologies can also be used for the making of chhana and
concentration of milk for many indigenous dairy products.
- The use of meat ball forming machines and potato
fryers for manufacturing gulabjamuns on large scale is a good example of
integrating modern technology with the traditional process.
- The packaging of these products can also follow a similar approach.
- In Italy, Mozzarella cheese balls are being packed in
whey in consumer packs. This can be tried to market rasagollas and gulabjamuns.
- Chocolate and candy packaging lines can be used to pack burfi
- Tetrapaks can be used to pack lassi, basundi, kheer
An example of this technique is the process by which the Japanese
manufacture Tofu, which resembles paneer.
- The modernization of this sector will also result
in energy savings.
- While manufacturing sweets in the traditional manner, a lot of heat energy goes waste which can possibly be
recovered in a modern plant.
- Evaporation of milk in a karahi consumes five times more
energy than in a vacuum evaporator.
- Whey is being drained, today, from the small
scale manufacture of paneer and chhana . This causes pollution and
degradation of the environment. Most of the whey in a modern plant can be recovered for the manufacture of lactose/lactates. Then,
India need not import some 5,000 tonnes of lactose annually.
Rather, it may be in a position to export it.
The preparation of these products by traditional methods needs to be studied and well documented on a scientific basis. The
technological parameters, biochemical changes and the perishability of these products
should be further researched to develop unit processes required for the large scale